Florida Bankruptcy Law
Bankruptcy is a legal proceeding in which an individual who cannot pay his or her bills can get a fresh financial start. The right to file for bankruptcy is provided by federal law, and all bankruptcy cases are handled in federal court. (see Florida Court Directory) Filing bankruptcy immediately stops all of your creditors from seeking to collect debts from you, at least until your debts are sorted out according to the law.
Bankruptcy may make it possible for you to:
You can order a copy of a bankruptcy filing. A basic summary if $29, if you include the creditor list it is $69, and a full paper report is $125. Click here to order.
Bankruptcy cannot, however, cure every financial problem. Nor is it the right step for every individual. In bankruptcy, it is usually not possible to:
You can file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy again after six years has passed from the date of your last filing. A Chapter 13 bankruptcy can be filed at any time.
Most people filing bankruptcy will want to file under either chapter 7 or chapter 13. Either type of case may be filed individually or by a married couple filing jointly. (see Florida Bankruptcy Law's Chapter 7 or 13?)
In a bankruptcy case under chapter 7, you file a petition asking the court to discharge your debts. The basic idea in a chapter 7 bankruptcy is to wipe out (discharge) your debts in exchange for your giving up property, except for "exempt" property which the law allows you to keep. (see bankruptcy- Florida exemptions) In most cases, all of your property will be exempt. But property which is not exempt is sold, with the money distributed to creditors.If you want to keep property like a home or a car and are behind on the payments on a mortgage or car loan, a chapter 7 case probably will not be the right choice for you. That is because chapter 7 bankruptcy does not eliminate the right of mortgage holders or car loan creditors to take your property to cover your debt. (see Florida Chapter 7 Bankruptcy)
In a chapter 13 case you file a "plan" showing how you will pay off some of your past-due and current debts over three to five years. The most important thing about a chapter 13 case is that it will allow you to keep valuable property--especially your home and car--which might otherwise be lost, if you can make the payments which the bankruptcy law requires to be made to your creditors. In most cases, these payments will be at least as much as your regular monthly payments on your mortgage or car loan, with some extra payment to get caught up on the amount you have fallen behind. You should consider filing a chapter 13 plan if you:
(1) own your home and are in danger of losing it because of money problems; (2) are behind on debt payments, but can catch up if given some time; (3) have valuable property which is not exempt, but you can afford to pay creditors from your income over time.
You will need to have enough income in chapter 13 to pay for your necessities and to keep up with the required payments as they come due. (see Florida Chapter 13 bankruptcy)
It now costs $200 to file for bankruptcy under chapter 7 and $185 to file for bankruptcy under chapter 13, whether for one person or a married couple. The court may allow you to pay this filing fee in installments if you cannot pay all at once. If you hire an attorney you will also have to pay the attorney's fees you agree to.
In a chapter 7 case, you can keep all property which the law says is "exempt" from the claims of creditors. Florida exemptions provides list of the exemptions available for Florida. In determining whether property is exempt, you must keep a few things in mind. The value of property is not the amount you paid for it, but what it is worth now. Especially for furniture and cars, this may be a lot less than what you paid or what it would cost to buy a replacement.You also only need to look at your equity in property. This means that you count your exemptions against the full value minus any money that you owe on mortgages or liens. For example, if you own a $50,000 house with a $40,000 mortgage, you count your exemptions against the $10,000 which is your equity if you sell it. While your exemptions allow you to keep property even in a chapter 7 case, your exemptions do not make any difference to the right of a mortgage holder or car loan creditor to take the property to cover the debt if you are behind. In a chapter 13 case, you can keep all of your property if your plan meets the requirements of the bankruptcy law. In most cases you will have to pay the mortgages or liens as you would if you didn't file bankruptcy. (see Florida Chapter 7 Bankruptcy or Florida Chapter 13 Bankruptcy? and Florida Non-Dischargeable Debts)
In most cases you will not lose your home or car during your bankruptcy case as long as your equity in the property is fully exempt. (see Florida bankruptcy exemptions) Even if your property is not fully exempt, you will be able to keep it, if you pay its non-exempt value to creditors in chapter 13. However, some of your creditors may have a "security interest" in your home, automobile or other personal property. This means that you gave that creditor a mortgage on the home or put your other property up as collateral for the debt. Bankruptcy does not make these security interests go away. If you don't make your payments on that debt, the creditor may be able to take and sell the home or the property, during or after the bankruptcy case. There are several ways that you can keep collateral or mortgaged property after you file bankruptcy. You can agree to keep making your payments on the debt until it is paid in full. Or you can pay the creditor the amount that the property you want to keep is worth. In some cases involving fraud or other improper conduct by the creditor, you may be able to challenge the debt. If you put up your household goods as collateral for a loan (other than a loan to purchase the goods), you can usually keep your property without making any more payments on that debt.
Yes. Many people believe they cannot own anything for a period of time after filing for bankruptcy. This is not true. You can keep your exempt property and anything you obtain after the bankruptcy is filed. However, if you receive an inheritance, a property settlement, or life insurance benefits within 180 days after your bankruptcy, that money or property may have to be paid to your creditors if the property or money is not exempt. You can also keep any property covered by Florida bankruptcy exemptions through the bankruptcy.
Yes, with some exceptions. Bankruptcy will not normally wipe out:
(1) money owed for child support or alimony, fines, and some taxes;(2) debts not listed on your bankruptcy petition;(3) loans you got by knowingly giving false information to a creditor, who reasonably relied on it in making you the loan;(4) debts resulting from "willful and malicious" harm;(5) student loans owed to a school or government body, except if:-- the court decides that payment would be an undue hardship;(6) mortgages and other liens which are not paid in the bankruptcy case (but bankruptcy will wipe out your obligation to pay any additional money if the property is sold by the creditor). (see Florida Non-Dischargeable Debts)
In most bankruptcy cases, you only have to go to a proceeding called the "meeting of creditors" to meet with the bankruptcy trustee and any creditor who chooses to come. Most of the time, this meeting will be a short and simple procedure where you are asked a few questions about your bankruptcy forms and your financial situation. Occasionally, if complications arise, or if you choose to dispute a debt, you may have to appear before a judge at a hearing. If you need to go to court, you will receive notice of the court date and time from the court and/or from your attorney. To find the location of the court that serves your area visit the Florida Federal Bankruptcy Court Directory page.
There is no clear answer to this question. Unfortunately, if you are behind on your bills, your credit may already be bad. Bankruptcy will probably not make things any worse. The fact that you've filed a bankruptcy can appear on your credit record for ten years. But since bankruptcy wipes out your old debts, you are likely to be in a better position to pay your current bills, and you may be able to get new credit.
Yes, there are several options available. While technically not a credit card you could use a bank or debit card to perform activities for which you normally would use a credit card. You also may be able to keep the credit card you already have if the creditor grants approval. If these options do not work you can get secured credit card which is backed by your own bank account.
Public utilities, such as the electric company, cannot refuse or cut off service because you have filed for bankruptcy. However, the utility can require a deposit for future service and you do have to pay bills which arise after bankruptcy is filed.
No. 11 U.S.C. sec. 525 prohibits governmental units and private employers from discriminating against you because you filed a bankruptcy petition or because you failed to pay a dischargeable debt.
If you lost your license solely because you couldn't pay court-ordered damages caused in an accident, bankruptcy will allow you to get your license back.
If someone has co-signed a loan with you and you file for bankruptcy, the co-signer may have to pay your debt.
Yes, but your spouse will still be liable for any joint debts. If you file together you will be able to double your exemptions. (see Florida bankruptcy exemptions) In some cases where only one spouse has debts, or one spouse has debts that are not dischargeable then it might be advisable to have only one spouse file. If the spouses have joint debts, the fact that one spouse discharged the debt may show on the other spouses credit report.
22. Can filing bankruptcy stop bill collectors from calling?
Yes. The automatic stay prevents bill collectors from taking any action to collect debts.
23. How long after filing will the creditors stop calling?
Once a creditor or bill collector becomes aware of a filing for bankruptcy protection, it must immediately stop all collection efforts. After you file the bankruptcy petition, the court mails a notice to all the creditors listed in your bankruptcy schedules. This usually takes a couple of weeks. Creditors will also stop calling if you inform them that you filed the bankruptcy petition, and supply them with your case number. In some cases, you or your attorney should contact the creditor immediately upon filing the bankruptcy petition, especially if a law suit is pending. If a creditor continues to use collection tactics once informed of the bankruptcy they may be liable for court sanctions and attorney fees for this conduct.
24. Can I erase my student loans by filing bankruptcy?
Generally, student loans are not discharged in bankruptcy. In 11 U.S.C. sec. 523(a)(8) there are two exceptions to this general rule:
Student loans more than 7 years old used to be dischargeable under certain circumstances, but this provision was removed by an appropriations bill passed in October of 1998.
Whether an exception applies depends on the facts of the particular case and may also depend on local court decisions. Even if a student loan falls into one of the two exceptions, discharge of the loan may not be automatic. You may have to file an adversary proceeding in the bankruptcy court to obtain a court order declaring the debt discharged.
Law code 28 USC Section 1408 states that the case should be filed where the debtor has lived "for the one hundred and eighty days immediately preceding such commencement, or for a longer portion of such one-hundred-and-eighty-day period." This means that the case should be filed in the bankruptcy district in which the debtor has lived for the greatest portion of the last six months.
Alimony, maintenance, and/or support are protected from discharge. Divorce decrees and separation agreements are covered by 11 U.S.C. Section 523(a)(15). This section states that these debts are not dischargeable unless:
(A) the debtor does not have the ability to pay such debt from income
or property of the debtor not reasonably necessary to be expended for
the maintenance or support of the debtor or a dependent of the debtor
and, if the debtor is engaged in a business, for the payment of expenditures
necessary for the continuation, preservation, and operation of such
Bankruptcy Law | Alternatives
This site is for informational purposes only. For legal advice please consult a legal professional.
If you have any problems viewing this page please email
Bankruptcy Law from Florida Bankruptcy